Werewolf and Religion Time Line
· 140,000 BC—according to research published in 1998, humans and wolves establish a common bond more than 140,000 years ago. DNA evidence shows that dogs began to evolve from their wolf ancestors about 135,000 years ago and that humans and their canine companions literally evolved together.
· 75,000 BC—discovers of the earliest human alters reveal evidence of bear, wolf and other animal cults. The identifications of humans or gods with animals is one of the most common elements of myth and religion.
· 25,000 BC—the Franco-Cantabrian cave artists of over 25,000 years ago leave portraits depicting ghostly creatures and a variety of two-legged beings with the heads of animals and birds. The ethnologist Ivar Lissner suggests (Man, God and Magic) that the stone age artists were portraying ‘intermediary beings who were stronger than common men and able to penetrate more deeply into the mysteries of fate that unfathomable interrelationships between animals, men and gods.’ What the ancient cave paintings may have been saying is that the ‘road to supernatural powers is easier to flow in animal shape and that spirits can only be reached with an animal’s assistance.’
· 6,000 BC—cave drawings in Catal Huyuk depict hunters draped in leopard skins, thus demonstrating how early humans learned to hunt by aping animal predators.
· 3,000 BC—Creation of the Sphinx, the lion headed beast-woman that has for centuries symbolized the higher spiritual nature triumphing over the world of matter.
· 2,000 BC—suggested date when the Epic of Gilgamesh was written down, giving us, in the character of Enkidu the first literary expression of a werewolf-like being.
· 1,000 BC—stories depicting the power of transformation are immensely popular among the Greeks. Heroes and deities freely change themselves and others into various animals and serpents.
· 850 BC—suggested date for the Homer’s Odyssey, a work filled with accounts of were creatures and shape-shifters, such as Circe, who transformed her lovers into swine.
· 750 BC—the date given for the legendary founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus, brothers who were suckled by a she-wolf.
· C. 540 BC—Nebuchadnezzar, mighty King of Babylon, suffers a mental affliction which causes him to allow his hair and beard to grow long to roan and to live as if he is an animal for nearly four years.
· 500 BC—the Scythians, a nomadic Eurasian people, record their beliefs that the Neuri turn themselves into werewolves during an annual religious festival.
· 400 BC—Damarchus, a werewolf from the Greek city state of Arcadia, is said to have won boxing medals at the Olympics.
· 100-75 BC—The great Roman poet Virgil speaks of the powers of the werewolf Moevis, from whom he claims to have learned many secrets of magic, including the raising of the dead.
· 28 AD—Jesus of Nazareth performs a successful exorcism on two werewolf/ghoul-like men who live among the dead in the cemetery outside of Gadarenes on the shore of the sea of Galilee.
· 55—Simon Magus, a great Magician, attempts to usurp the role of Jesus in the early Christian movement by claiming to be the true messiah. It is recorded that he has the power to transform himself into a variety of animal and human shapes and to accomplish miracles. He soon runs a fowl of Peter and the other disciples.
· 150—Apuleius’ Golden Ass records the poet’s travels to Thessaly where he beholds a wide assortment of magical practices and the transformation of humans into animals after he, himself, is changed into an ass.
· 175—Pausanias, A Greek traveler, geographer and author visits Arcadia and sees the Lycanian werewolves.
· C. 410—in his city of God, the great clergyman St. Augustine relates the account of certain sorceresses in the Alps who give their unsuspecting victims a special kind of cheese that transforms them into beasts of burden.
· 435—St. Patrick arrives in Ireland and discovers that among his flock are many families of werewolves.
· 650—Paulus Aeginda describes “melancholic lycantropia” as a black and dismal frame of mind that causes some people to leave their homes and to wonder the cemeteries, taking refuge among the tombstones. As these lycanthropes become increasing melancholy, they see themselves as werewolves.
· 725—the approximate date for the authorship of Beowulf, the earliest extant poem in a modern European language. Although the text is written in Old English it depicts the struggles of a Viking champion, a likely member of a boar cult, against a monster.
· 731—venerable Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of England describes a host of were-animals that haunt the night.
· 774—the chronicles of Denys of Tell-Mahre describe the wolflike monsters that terrorized the region known today as Iraq.
· 840—Agobard, the archbishop of Lyons, writes in his Liber contra insulam vulgi opinionem of the evil demons of the mountains that appear as man beasts.
· 872—the first reference to the Berserker, those fierce warriors who enter battle clothed only in wolfskins or bearskins, appears in Haraldskvaeoi.
· 906—The Canon Episcopi by Abbot Regino of Prum condemns as heretical any belief in witchcraft and/or in the power of sorcerers to change people into animals. If anyone believes they have the ability to fly through the air or to transform a human into a creature of another species, they are being deceived by Satan into maintaining such a delusion. At this time the Christian clergy is more interested in stamping out all allegiance to the Goddess Diana and regards as primitive superstition any suggestion that witches possess any kind of magical powers or that men and women can be transformed into werewolves and other beings. Unfortunately in 1233 the church smothers all such rational thinking with the think black smoke of the Inquisition.
· 930—Pope Leon hears of two sorceresses in Germany who for their own amusement transform certain of their unwitting guests into animals. One victim regains his human form by eating roses.
· 1000—Deacon Burchard, later archbishop of Worms, publishes corrector, which updates Regino’s Cannon Episcopi and stresses that only God can change one thing into another. Therefore, claims of wild men and women of the woods who transform people into wolves and perform other magical acts are false. In general usage, the term ‘werewolf’ is meant to apply to an outlaw.
· 1022—the first fully attested burning of a heretic takes place in Orleans.
· 1101—Prince Vseslav of Polock, an alleged Ukranian werewolf, dies.
· 1182—Giraldus Camrensis, a Welsh historian, author of Itineraium Cambranine, learns of an Irish tribe whose members transform themselves into wolves during their Yule tide feast.
· C. 1195—Guillaume de Palerne, “William the werewolf”, composed.
· 1198—Marie de France composes Bisclavret, the “Lay of a werewolf.”
· 1205—the Chronicles of Abbolt Ralph of Essex describe strange demons that appear after a thunderstorm.
· 1208—the Cathar sect becomes so popular among the people that Pope Innocent III considers it a greater threat to Christianity that the Islamic warriors who pummeled the Crusaders. To satisfy his outrage, he orders the only crusade ever launched against fellow Christians by attacking the Albigensians, as the Cathars of southern France were known.
· 1214—in his report to the Emperor Otto IV, Gervaise of Tilbury reports cases in Auvergne in which men were seen to take the form of wolves during the full moon.
· 1220—Caesarius of Hiesterbach, author of Dialogue of Miracles, describes numerous accounts of shapeshifting pacts with Satan and mysterious flights through the air. The bishops of Tyre records an incident of a sorceress on the island of Cyprus transforming an English soldier into an use to be used as a beast of burden.
· 1224—Konrad, the first papal Inquisitor in Germany, condemns witches to the stake for worshipping Satan and producing diabolical monsters to do their biding.
· 1233—Pope Gregory IX urges other bishops to follow Konrad’s lead and to become more vigorous in ridding Europe of shape shifting witches. It is well known that Satan can appear in the form of a black cat, a wolf, a giant toad or any form he wishes. Thus it follows logically that his disciples possess the same abilities of diabolical transformation. The Inquisition is founded in 1233 to eradicate the practice of witchcraft. The chief components which define witchcraft are the ability to shape shift, the capability to fly and/or to ride objects through the air, and the use of cannibalism, child murder, salves, animal familiars, and the invocation of demons to achieve power.
· 1246—Montsegur, the center of Albigensian residence, falls. Hundreds of Cathars are burned at the stake. The head quarters of the Inquisition is established in Toulouse.
· 1252—Pope Innocent IV issues a papal bull, Ad Extirpanda, that places Inquisitors about the law. Every ruler and commoner must assist the work of the Inquisition or face excommunication.
· 1257—the church officially sanctions torture as a means of forcing witches, werewolves, shape shifters and other heretics to confess.
· 1275—a woman in Toulouse is found guilty of sexual intercourse with an incubus and of giving birth to a child who is half wolf and half snake.
· C. 1300—Volsunga, the great Viking saga, depicts an outlaw father and son who become werewolves and establish a dynasty.
· 1305—the wealthy and powerful knights Templar are accused of heretical acts, suck as invoking Satan, having intercourse with succubi and worshipping demons that appeared as large black cats.
· 1312—inspite of 573 witnesses for their defense, the Templars are tortured en masse, burned at the stake and their order is disbanded by Pope Clement V.
· 1313—as he is being burned to death on a scaffold erected for the occasion in front of the Notre Dame, the knight Templar Grand Master, Jacques de Molay, recants the confession produced by torture and proclaims his innocence to the Pope and the king and reinvites them to meet him at Heaven’s gate when both dignitaries die soon after de Molay’s execution, it seems to the public at large that the Grand Master has been innocent of the charges of heresy.
· 1320—in Practica, an influential instructor manual written for inquisitors by Bernard Gui and in Fascilusus morum, a work prepared by an English Franciscan, witch hunters are urged to pay particular heed to appending women who cavort with the Goddess Diana and who transform their victims into other shaped for serfdom in elfland.
· 1324—Ireland’s first witchcraft trial occurs when Alice Kyteler is found guilty of consorting with a demon who could appear as a tall man, a black cat, a shaggy dog, or an Ethiopian.
· C. 1336—in a version of Wolfram von Eschenbach’s Parzival, Klaus Wisse and Philipp Colin insert takes of humans being transformed into animals.
· 1344—witch hunters announce that they have found a wolf child at Hesse.
· C. 1350—first major outbreak of the Black Death, a form of bubonic plague, which becomes pandemic throughout Europe and much of Asia. Boccaccio’s Decameron includes satirical tales of diabolical beasts and witches’ gatherings that are intended to mock the Inquisitors.
· 1390—Gypsies begin to appear in Europe.
· 1407—Werewolves are tortured and burned during witchcraft trails at Basel.
· 1440—Gilles de Rais is tried and burned for child murders and for worshipping Satan in both human and animal form.
· 1458—The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abramelin is translated from the Hebrew. This legendary manuscript deals with the summoning of tutelary spirits and stresses a strong belief in every person developing the higher self that exists within.
· 1484—Pope Innocent VIII so deplores the spread of witchcraft in Germany that he issues the papal bull Summis Desiderantes Affectibus and authorizes two trusted Dominican inquisitors, Heinrich Institoris (Kramer) and Jakob Sprenger, to squelch demonology in the Rhineland.
· 1486—Malleus Maleficarum, the “Hammer of the Witches” by Institoris and Sprenger is published and quickly becomes the ‘bible’ of the heretic-hunters. Malleus earnestly refutes all those who would claim that the works of demons exist only in troubled human minds. Certain angels fell from Heaven and to believe otherwise is to believe contrary to the truth faith. And now these fallen angels, these demons are intent upon destroying the human race. Any persons who consort with demons and become witches and shape shifters must recant their evil ways or be put to death.
· 1521—three werewolves of Poligny, accused of having eaten children and consorted with wild she-wolves, confess to having achieved their transformation from a magic salve. They are burnt at the stake.
· 1541—a Paduan werewolf dies after torture, and after his inquisitors hack off his arms and legs searching for the wolf hair that he wore on his inside.
· 1550—Witekind interviews a self-confessed werewolf at Riga. Johann Weyer (Weir), a critic of the Inquisition takes up the post of doctor at Cleve. Weyer believes in the power of Satan, but he believes that the devil has only deluded certain men and women into believing that they have supernatural powers as witches and shape shifters, thus causing them to worship dark forces rather than God.
· 1552—Modern French version of Guillaume published at Lyon.
· 1555—Olaus Magnus records (Historia de gentibu septenrionalibus) his observation that the werewolves of Livonia put on a girdle of wolf skin, drink a cup of beer, and utter certain magic words to accomplish their transformation from human to wolves.
· 1556—in the eleventh book of his Marvels, Job Fincel tells of a lycanthrope of Padua who when his wolf-claws were cut later appeared in human form with his hands cut. Fincel also relates an account of an old chateau inhabited by a number of cat people.
· 1560—the first publication of Giambattista Della Porta’s Magia maturalis
· 1563—against strong opposition, Johann Weyer publishes De praestigus daemonum, arguing that while Satan does seek to ensnare and destroy, the charges that witches and other shape shifters possess supernatural powers exists only in their minds and imaginations.
· 1573—Gilles Garnier is burned as a werewolf.
· 1575—trials begin for the benandanti, a fertility cult in the Friuili that worshipped Diana.
· 1580—as if to provide an antidote to Weyer’s call for rational approach in dealing with accusations of witchcraft and shape shifting, the respected intellectual, Jean Bodin, often referred to as the Aristotle of the sixteenth century, writes De la demonomanie des sorciers, the book that causes the flames to burn even higher around thousands of heretics’ stakes.
· 1584—Reginald Scot risks accusations of heresy to support the call for reason championship by Weyer to write Discoverie of Witchcraft.
· 1588—Alleged date of the execution of a female werewolf after a trial presided over by Grand Justice Henri Bouget, a judge especially noted for his cruelty.
· 1589—Peter Stubbe is executed as a werewolf at Cologne.
· 1595—Daemonolatreia by Nicholas Remy is hailed as the greatest encyclopedia of witchcraft since Malleus Maleficarum.
· 1598—Roulet is tried as werewolf, but his sentence is commuted. The Werewolf of Chalons, a tailor accused of eating children in his shop, is executed in Paris. The Gandillon family is burned as werewolves in the Jura after a wolf is killed while in the act of attacking a village girl and is witnessed by the mob to return to the human form of Perrenette Gandillon.
· 1599—B. de Chavincourt publishes Discours de la Lycantropic.
· 1600—in Spain, Remy’s Daemonolateria is replaced as the new Catholic Malleus by the massive encyclopedia Disquisitiones Magicae, compiled by the Jesuit scholar Martin del Rio.
· 1602—the cardinal-archbishop of Besancon underwrites the publication of Examen des sorciers (Discours des sorciers), a work assigned to the legal scholar Henri Bouget, an accomplished judge, torturer, and burner of heretics. King James of Scotland becomes so incensed by Scot’s Discoverie of Witchcraft that he writes his own book, Demonolgie, and supervises the large-scale burning of Scot’s volume.
· 1603—Jean Grenier is tried as a werewolf and sentenced to life imprisonment.
· 1610—Two women are condemned to death as werewolves at Liege. Jean Grenier dies.
· 1612—in L'inconstance, Pierre de Lancre, a noted judge of Bordeaux, writes of his visit to the cell of Jean Grenier and declares that the werewolf had sharp, protruding teeth and appeared comfortable on all fours than in walking upright.
· 1630—prince-bishop Johann Georg II Fuchs von Dornheim, the infamous Hexenbishof (Witch Bishop) constructs a special torture chamber which he decorates with appropriate passages from scripture. He burns at least six hundred heretics and shape shifters, including a fellow bishop he suspects of being too lenient.
· 1631—witch trail judge Pieree de Lancre, author of Tableau, dies. By his own boast, he tortured and burned over six hundred persons. Jesuit Fredrich Spree had his hair turned prematurely white when he is assigned as a confessor to accused witches. To protest the cruelties he witnessed in the torture chambers, he writes Cautio Criminalis.
· 1635—Benedict Carpzov publishes Practica Rerum Criminalium, a work that is often referred to as the Malleus of Lutheranism. Carpzov acknowledged that torture of the innocent is deplorable, but necessary to ferret out the disciples of Satan.
· 1680—Catherine Montvoisin goes to the stake in Paris, claiming she sacrificed over 2500 infants on her satanic alter.
· 1692—The Livonian werewolf Theiss is interrogated.
· 1697—Perrault’s Contes includes “Little red ridding hood”
· 1794—the Beast of Gevaudon starts a wide spread werewolf scare in Auvergne.
· 1812—Brothers Grimm publish their version of “Little red ridding hood”
· 1824—Antoine Legar is tried for werewolf crimes and sentenced to a lunatic asylum.
· 1848—the moon turns blood red during an eclipse and sets off an epidemic of werewolf sightings.
· 1857—G. W. M. Reynolds publishes Wagner the Wehr-Wolf.
· 1886—Robert Louis Stevenson publishes Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.
· 1887—The Order of the Golden Dawn is founded. The order is largely based on the Sacred Magic of Abramalin and restores a fascination with vampires, werewolves and spirits of darkness and light. Among its members are such luminaries as Nobel Prize winners W. B. Yeats and the notorious Aleister Crowley.
· 1888—jack the Ripper terrorizes London with his werewolflife slashings and mutilations of prostitutes.
· 1897—Vacher the Ripper mutilates and kills as many as twenty victims before he is apprehended in France. Thomas Russell Sullivan adapts The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde for the stage in Boston.
· 1898—McGregor Matthews, Visible Head of the Order of the Golden Dawn, translates the grimoire, The Sacred Magic of Abramalin the Mage.
· 1908—the first film version of Jekyll and Hyde is produced by the Selig company in America.
· 1909—A Danish film company produces their version of Jekyll and Hyde.
· 1912—The Laemmle production company in America releases their take on Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.
· 1913—the silent film The Werewolf used a real wolf in the transformation scene. Film production companies in the U.S. and Great Britain release the fourth and fifth versions of Jekyll and Hyde.
· 1919—the approximate date of the founding of the Thule Society in German. A young and earnest Adolf Hitler is among their early members.
· 1920—Kamala and Amala, the wolf children, are discovered in India. Right-wing terror group “Operation Werewolf” is established in Germany. Four separate versions of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde are released that year. The most famous interpretation of the four is that of John Barrymore, produced by Famous Players-Lasky.
· 1922—the Fraternity of the Inner Light is founded by Dion Fortune, who had a dramatic and frightening encounter with a werewolf.
· 1923—the founding of Hitler’s Nazi party.
· 1924—Fritz Haarmann, the Hanover Butcher, murders and cannibalizes as many as 50 young men. What he cannot himself devour, he sells as steaks and sausages to his unsuspecting customers.
· 1932—Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde with esteemed actor Frederic March becomes the classic film version of the haunting tale.
· 1934—Author Guy Endore publishes The Werewolf of Paris.
· 1935—Henry Hull stars in The Werewolf of London. Albert Fish kills and eats as many as fifteen children in Washington D.C.
· 1940—Harry Gordon, the Werewolf of San Francisco, is arrested.
· 1941—The Wolf Man with Lon Chaney, Jr. establishes werewolf arcana according to Hollywood.
· 1942—Gordon Cummins, London’s “Wartime Jack the Ripper” is apprehended.
· 1944—The House of Frankenstein includes mention of a silver bullet terminating a werewolf and adds to the lycanthropic mythology.
· 1945—Goebbels resurrects Operation Werewolf as a terrorist society.
· 1957—Ed Gein, the Wisconsin Ghoul, is arrested.
· 1966—Richard Speck brutally slashes eight student nurses to death in Chicago.
· 1969—The Charles Manson “family” commits a satanic mass murder in Beverly Hills.
· 1977—Serial killer David Berkowitz (Son of Sam) is ordered to murder by a large black dog.
· 1980—two innovative motion pictures, The Howling and An American Werewolf in London, set a high watermark for motion picture special effects and reestablish werewolf films—and the horror genre in general—as viable commodities as the box-office.
· 1982—the notorious “Chicago Rippers”, a savage gang of rapist-mutilators, is apprehended.
· 1985—Richard Ramirez, the “Night Stalker”, receives 19 death sentences in Los Angeles.
· 1987—Michael Lupo, “the Wolfman of London” is jailed.
· 1989—In Paris, Francis LeRoy, “the Werewolf of the Dordgone” is imprisoned for life a satanic/cannibal cult head quartered in Matamoros, Mexico, is disbanded. The high priest, Aldolfo De Jesus Constanzo, is killed on his own orders rather than be taken into custody, and the priestess Sara Maria Aldrete, is imprisoned.
· 1992—Jeffery Dahmer is convicted of 16 charges of murder, mutilation and cannibalism.
· 1994—Moscow’s Neo-Nazi werewolves disrupt the showing of Steven Spielberg’s Schindler’s List.
· 1997—Real-life “Werewolves on Wheels”, the Cobra and the Butcher, two motorcycle slashers, are apprehended for the brutal death of 37 Pakistani Shiite Muslims in Karachi. Nasib Kelewang told authorities in Indonesia that his ghost of his father ordered him to kill and dedicate to Satan the 42 women whose bodies they unearthed from the sugarcane field near the North Sumatran capital of Medan. Police in Paris engage in a desperate search for the “Bastille Slasher”, a vicious rapist who slits the throats of his victims.
· 1998—Hanoi’s “Werewolves on Wheels”, a crazed pair of motorcycle slashers who prey on children, are sought by police as the toll of the young victims of the monsters’ vicious razors rise higher. “The Rippers of Genoa” is finally captured by Italian police after slashing to death at least eight women.
· 1999—The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office rejects an attempt to patent a technique for creating animal-human hybrids.