The Element Encyclopedia of Native Americans
The ultimate a-z of the tribes, symbols, and wisdom of the Native Americans of North America
By: Adele Nozedar


-American Indian Movement- also known by the acronym AIM, this organization was founded in Minneapolis in 1968 as a focus for numerous issues that concerned the Native American community. It followed on from the Red Power Movement.
The issues concerning AIM included housing, police harassment toward those of Native American origin, poverty, and also the outstanding issues concerning treaties between the Native peoples and the U.S. Government. Although the movement started in Minneapolis, it soon gained momentum across the United States, and in 1971 members gathered together to protest in Washington, D.C.
The 'trail of broken treaties' saw the Native American representatives present a list to the government of 20 demands that they felt they were entitled to due to various promises that had been made in historical agreements. These 20 items were:

-Restore treaty-making (ended by Congress in 1871)
-Establish a treaty commission to make new treaties (with sovereign Native Americans)
-Provide opportunities for Indian leaders to address Congress directly
-Review treaty commitments and violations
-Have any ratified treaties reviewed by the Senate
-Ensure that all American Indians are governed by treaty relations
-Provide relief to Native nations as compensation for treaty rights violations
-Recognize the rights of Indians to interpret treaties
-Create a Joint Congressional Committee to reconstruct relations with Indians
-Restore 110 million acres of land taken away from Native nations by the United States
-Restore terminated rights of Native nations
-Repeal state jurisdiction on Native nations
-Provide Federal protection for offenses against Indians
-Abolish the Bureau of Indian Affairs
-Create a new office of Federal Indian Relations
-Remedy breakdown in the constitutionally prescribed relationships between the United States and Native nations
-Ensure immunity of Native nations from state commerce regulation, taxes and trades restrictions
-Protect Indian religious freedom and cultural integrity
-Establish national Indian voting with local options, free national Indian organizations from government controls
-Reclaim and affirm health, housing, employment, economic development, and education for all Indian people
Perhaps the most noteworthy piece of activism by AIM was 'the Longest Walk'. Following a spiritual tradition with political aims in mind, the Longest Walk began in February 1978 with a ceremony on Alcatraz Island, where the Red Power Movement had first drawn attention to the plight of Native Americans ten years earlier. The beginning of the walk started with a pipe ceremony; this pipe was carried the entire length of the route, some 3,200 miles across the U.S.A, ending in Washington, D.C., in July of the same year.
The walk highlighted many issues, such as the need for tribal sovereignty and the civil rights of the Native American people. Support was garnered from both within the Native community and outside of it, and from both inside the United States and from much further a field.
Once in Washington, the pipe, which had been loaded with tobacco at the beginning of the journey, was smoked at the site of the Washington monument. Therefore, rallies were held to highlight all the issues that the Longest Walk had set out to address.
AIM continues to fight on behalf of the Native American peoples.

-Chewing Gum- the origin of our modern chewing gum are from Native American people. As well as chewing the delicately flavored sap of pine trees, a habit that they passed onto the Europeans, the Aztecs chewed a substance called Chicle, a naturally occurring latex substance of the sapodilla or naseberry tree from Central America. Chicle itself can be a pink or reddish brown color, and has also been used as a rubber substitute. It was introduced to the United States as the primary ingredient of chewing gum in the late 1880s. In order to collect the Chicle, deep U-shaped grooves were cut into the tree to allow the sap to run down the trunk, where it was collected. The word “Chicle” is reflected in the brand name of some chewing gum products.

-Confederacy- also called an allegiance or league, a confederacy was a union of two or more tribes, perhaps for military or political purposes. The Iroquois Confederacy is a good example of just how powerful strength in numbers, and a unified aim, can be.

-Coyote- the coyote, or prairie wolf, who known as the barking wolf because of the sound it makes, was respected by the Native Americans for its perceived wisdom. In common with many other sacred animals, the flesh of the coyote was rarely eaten; however, a division of the Apache known as the Coyoteros are said to have that name purely because they did elect to eat the flesh of the animal.
Coyote skin was prized as a material for making the quivers that held arrows.

-Eagles- To all Native Americans, the eagle was considered to be the most majestic of all birds, the king of the skies. This symbolism is not unique to Indians but is generally held to be the case all over the world. The bird attracted many beliefs and superstitions, and the eagle feather is even today revered as a scared object, and latterly very hard to get hold of. Only properly registered tribal members are permitted to own one, and illegal possession of an eagle feather can subject the owner to huge fines. The Thunderbird, a mythological creature that was supposed to be responsible for thunderstorms, was closely aligned to the eagle.
The natural characteristics of the eagle inspired its meaningfulness to Native Americans. Its power of flight, its ability to cover great distances, its incredibly sharp vision, and its hunting abilities all made the bird an object of awe and worship. To the Hopi the eagle was the personification of the Sky God, and when the Pueblo people were first visited by the Spanish explorer Coronado, he found that they actually kept eagles in captivity. Although the bald-headed eagle was the bird used as the emblem of the United States for the American Indian it was the golden eagle that really ruled the roost.

-Feathers- feathers provided a rich raw material with which Native Americans could ornament and decorate themselves. The feathers themselves were believed to carry with them something of the essence of the birds they came from, and so were treated as sacred objects. The skins of birds, too, were used; for example tribes of the east would cut the skins into stripes, sew them together, and then use them in weaving. The tribes of the west and southeast made feathers into grandly elaborate robes, befitting the ruling class.
By far the most important feather was that of the golden eagle, the most revered of birds. These feathers adorn the warbonnets of the mightiest warriors.

-Freeze-drying- the technique that we take for granted as a way of preserving various food stuff was actually a Native American invention. The Aztec would freeze potatoes on the tops of icy mountains, causing the moisture inside the potatoes to evaporate. This was how the colonists were able to take potatoes all the way back to Europe by sea.

-Indian Place Names-
Native American names feature strongly in the North American landscape, so much so that we tend to take them for granted. Knowing the meanings of these names makes for an unfolding of the imagination as we think of how the original names came to be.

-Allegheny- fairest river
-Appalachian- named for the Apalachee people
-Appomattox- tobacco country
-Canada- collection of wigwams
-Coshocton- habitat of owls
-Chattanooga- eagle’s nest
-Chautauqua- foggy place
-Chesapeake- salty pond
-Chicago- wild onions
-Chickamauga- river of death
-Chillicothe- town (or village)
-Kaibah-on the mountain
-Kalamazoo- otter’s trail
-Kenosha- long fish, “pike”
-Keokuk- watchful fox
-Lackawanna- streams that fork
-Kokomo- black walnut
-Lycoming- sandy stream
-Machinac- turtle island
-Merrimac- swift stream
-Milwaukee- rich land
-Mississinewa- water on a slope
-Muncie- strong place
-Muskegon- plenty of fish
-Muskingun- moose-eye river
-Nantucket- far away
-Natchez- hurrying people
-Niagara- thundering water
-Okeechobee- grassy lake
-Omaha- upstream
-Oshkosh- claws (or scratching)
-Ottawa-trade (or exchange)
-Passaic- peace valley
-Penobscot- rocky place
-Pensacola- hairy people
-Peoria- place of fat beats
-Potomac- burning pines
-Rappahannock- quick rising river
-Rearrange- high place
-Roanoke- shell (or shells)
-Saginaw- pouring out at mouth
-Saratoga- sparkling place
-Saskatchewan- swift river
-Savannah- grassy plain
-Schuylkill- hidden creek
-Scioto- hairs in river
-Shenandoah- hillside stream
-Shawnee- southerners
-Susquehanna- pure water
-Suwannee- echo river
-Tacoma- big snow mountain
-Tallahassee- old town
-Tecumseh- shooting star
-Tippecanoe- buffalo fish
-Topeka- potato country
-Toronto- meeting place
-Tucson- black base
-Tuscaloosa- black warrior
-Wabash- white, flat rocks
-Walla Walla- many waters -Wastch- beautiful
-Winamac- mudfish, catfish
-Yosemite- grizzly bear

Indian State names
-Alaska- great land
-Alabama- I clear the thicket
-Arizona- silver slabs
-Arkansas- downstream people
-Connecticut- upon the long river
-Dakota- related people
-Idaho- sunrise, it is morning
-Illinois- men (or great men)
-Indiana- land of the Indians
-Iowa- sleepy ones
-Kansas- people of the south wind
-Kentucky- hunting grounds
-Massachusetts- great hill
-Michigan- great water
-Mississippi- father of water
-Missouri- great muddy, people with wooden canoes
-Minnesota- sky-tinted water
-Nebraska- flat water
-New Mexico- named for the Aztec God Mexitili
-Ohio- beautiful valley
-Okalahoma- land of the Red Man
-Oregon- Beautiful water
-Tennessee- named after Chief Tannassie
-Texas- Tejas (or allies)
-Utah- those who dwell high up
-Wisconsin- where waters gather
-Wyoming- great plain

-Lacrosse- the game that’s now popular all over the world was actually a Native American invention. Lacrosse is played with a ball and a long-handled, netted racket.

-Mother-in-law taboo- It was the custom in some tribes that a man must never look at the mother of his wife, neither could he even be under the same roof, and he must certain never speak to her. In order to effect this habit, mothers-in-law of the Navajo tribe were small bells in their ears so that their sons-in-law would be warned of their arrival.

-Popcorn- It is likely that popcorn was first invented when Native Americans invented when Native Americans roasted dried corn cobs over a hot fire.

-Powwow- From a Narragansett Algonquian word meaning “magician” or “spiritual leader”, the powwow has come to mean a large conference or meeting, replete with ceremonial magic. It was the European settlers who took the word to mean a conference or talk, which meaning is still applied in this context today.
Formerly, a powwow was a gathering of tribal members prior to a battle or an important hunting expedition. Then the term was applied to a meeting of a governing council in which issues could be raised and solutions found for problems.
The powwow could be small, applied within a family to settle disputes, or large, applied to the community as a whole, where the entire tribe would spend time discussing their issues and the sorting out arguments and disputes.
In recent years, the powwow has taken on a new significance, as a way of celebrating Native American culture. This sort of powwow is a big event, a festival that sometimes takes up to a year to organize.

-Relocation- A euphemism for the enforced removal of Native American peoples from their homelands, often to what became known as the Indian territory in Oklahoma. Relation took place during the 1800s.

-Syringes- an early form of syringe was invented by Native American healers to inject medicine beneath the skin. These syringes were made from the hollow bones of birds attached to a pipette made of bladder of a small animal.

-Thanksgiving Ceremonies- not restricted to the founding Fathers by any means, the Native Americans of many tribes, including the Iroquois Confederacy, had a number of different ceremonies whose purpose was to express gratitude toward the Great Spirit. These included a midwinter thanksgiving, giving thanks for the crops of strawberries and raspberries, a maple- or sugar- making thanksgiving, a number of thanksgiving ceremonies. Centered around corn (planting it, being it, celebrating the green corn on the ripe), and a harvest thanksgiving.

-Thunderbird- A mythological bird of colossal size, which the Native Americans believed was the creator of thunder and lightning. The Plains Indians thought of the creatures as an actual bird, whereas other tribes –particularly those in the north west- envisioned it as a giant human being who had donned the costume of a bird, replete with wings which made the giant actually able to fly.
Every aspect of a storm was explained by the actions of the Thunderbird. Thunder was the flapping of its wings, the storm cloud was caused by its approaching shadow. Its blinking eye caused lightning. And rain poured down from the lake carried by the bird upon its back.
The stylized form of the mystical bird is a popular design, often seen on clothes or moccasins. In picture writing, the bird has jagged arrows, representing lightning, coming from its heart. The Thunderbird symbols of the Arapaho and Cheyenne are shown gasping those arrows in their claws. The eagle depicted on U.S. coins and dollar bills was recognized by Indians as the Thunderbirds and they named it “Baa”, their appellation for the Thunderbird.
The Thunderbird, according to myth, dwelt on a high mountain or promontory; there are place-names within the landscape which bear testimony to this legend, such as a Thunder Bay at Lake Huron, Michigan.

-Wakan Tanka- This Lakota Sioux term refers to what is sacred, or divine, or holy; sometimes it’s translated as “the Great Spirit”, although “the Great Mystery”, (Wakan “Mystery”, and Tanka “something great”) might be more appropriate as it’s more all-embracing, “God”, in the Christian sense, is not accurate in describing Waken Tanka since there’s no sense of “hierarchy” or superiority with Wakan Tanka; the term has a greater affinity with say, the Shinto religion, and is an animistic concept that ascribes a spirit and sacredness to absolutely everything. In fact, this belief is not significantly different from belief all around the world prior to the coming of the patriarchal, monotheistic faith systems.
To the Native Americans, everything is sacred. Animals, trees, rocks, and plants are all brothers and sisters and all are a part of the earth, and of the elements.
The spirits- or- Wakanpi- can be benevolent and grant the wishes of mankind, or they can be evil and are best avoided. Both kinds need to be appeased with offerings. Communication with these spirits is carried out by the shaman or the medicine man of the tribe. Music- particularly the rhythmic thud of a drum accomplished by song- is an effective tool for spirit communication, as is smoke. Sweet grass is offered to the benevolent spirits, whereas white sage is used to drive the evil ones away. The smoke from tobacco helps carry prayers to the heavens.

-Wolf- Prominent as a totem animal among many Native American peoples, and adopted as a powerful symbol by those latterly interested in Native American spiritually, the wolf is a significant symbol, a scared animal, often depicted howling at the full moon. Among the qualities that it is represented for include intelligence, strength, and courage. The wolf moves in a pack, a reminder of loyalty and strong family valves. Naturally, the wolf was almost admired among hunting peoples and the shaman rather than in farming communities. In fact, it is the wolf’s hunting abilities that were possibly considered the most important aspect of its characters, Natives who hunted would have valued their endeavors. Medicine men of several hunting tribes, including the Cheyenne, would “change” their hunting weapons by rubbing them against wolf fur; hunters from several tribes, including the Crow, would wear wolf skins in the belief that the animal’s skills might pass to the wearers.
The wolf attracted other rituals, too. The sound of a wolf howling, for the Lenape, signaled a change in the weather. The Cherokee would never kill a wolf for fear that its brothers and sisters would exact revenge. The Cree thought that the Northern Lights were actually supernatural wolves coming to visit the earthly plane. The wolf star- also called Sirius- was a spirit wolf, running the length of the Wolf Road, represented by the Milky Way. The Black Foot associated the wolf with the stars: they called out galaxy the Wolf Trial. For the Hopi, the wolf was a Kaching, a godlike being. The Pawnee had a particularly close link with the animal: the hand signal for “wolf” was the same as that for the name of their tribe, and other Natives also called the Pawnee “the Wolf People”.
Navajo peoples, however, gave the wolf the name mai-coh, which has the same meaning as “witch”, they believed that witches would abuse the power of the wolf to hurt others, and might even be able to transmute into a wolf to effect this damage.

-Kachina- this word derives from Ka (respect) and china (spirit). The kachina is a powerful example of how, for Native Americans, the world of nature, and the world of spirit are all intertwined. Grasping this concept is essential to any true understanding of the Native American psyche. The concept of the kachina belongs in particular to the Pueblo people.
Frank Waters, in his 1963 publication The Book of the Hopi, tells us:
“The kachinas, then, are the inner forms, the spiritual components of the outer physical forms of life, which may be invoked to manifest their benign powers to that man may be enabled to continue his never-ending journey. They are invisible forces of life not gods, but rather intermediaries messengers. Hence their chief function is to bring rain, insuring the abundance of crops and the continuation of life.”
The number of kachinas has even been counted, with as many as 400 in the Hopi culture. They can be spirits of animals, of the dead, or plants, stars, minerals, or any other natural force. In short, everything in the universe carries within it a spark of divine life which must be respected. Kachinas are also named: Tawa, for example, is the kachina of the sun, while kokopelli, a dancing figure with a wild shock of hair and a flute, is the spirit of fertility, creativity, and music.
Kachinas can be represented by costumes and masks, and the person wearing that costume or mask is deemed to have taken on the mantle of the kachina, not only in material appearance but in spirit, too. This is a very serious responsibility, and the person behind the mask has to ensure perfect behavior as a matter of utmost respect, not only to the kachina itself, but to his people as a whole.

-Timeline of events in Native American history

-15000 B.C. Paleo- Indian Era (Stone Age) Hunter gatherer groups inhabit North America.
-12000 B.C. Migrants arrive in what will become the United States of America.
-9000 B.C. Clovis Culture, named after artifacts found at Blackwater Draw, Clovis, New Mexico.
-7500 B.C. Folsom Culture, named after artifacts found at Folsom, New Mexico, Eastern Woodland Culture begins
-5000 B.C. Eskimo-Aleut and Na-Dene peoples arrive from Asia
-4000 B.C. Copper Culture begins along the Great Lakes
-2000 B.C. Pecos Culture begins, producing rock paintings
-1700 B.C. Mound-builder Culture
-1100 B.C. Anasazi build their cliff cities at Mesa Verde, Colorado
-1000 B.C. Maize becomes the staple food of the Mexican Indians. Agriculture established among the Mogollan people.
-250 B.C. Bow and arrow introduced
-A.D. 200-300 Woodland Culture, Adena Culture, Hopewell Culture as well as Mississippi Culture
-750 Mississippi Culture prominent
-1000 Rise of Anasazi civilization
-1450 Iroquois Confederacy founded
-1492 Christopher Columbus discovers America
Population estimated at 18 million
-1500 European diseases, including small pox, tuberculosis, typhoid, influenza, measles, and yellow fever arrive in America. The indigenous population reduces from 80 million in the 500 years from this date.
-1513 Ponce de Leon arrives in Florida
-1513 Alonso de Pineda explored the Gulf Coast of America (Florida) and discovers the Calusa Indians
-1513 Second Ponce de Leon expedition forced out of Florida by Caluse tribes
-1524 Giovanni Verrazzano discovers New York Bay
-1528 Panfilo de Narvaez conquers Cuba and explores Florida, and Alvar Cabeza de Vaca explores Texas, Arizona and New Mexico
-1534 Jacques Cartier explores the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River, encountering the Native Americans of the region
-1539 Hernando de Soto explores southeastern North Americans, defeating resistance from Timucuan warriors, leading to the Napituca Massacre
-1540 Francisco Vazquez de Coronado explores southwestern North America and Mexico, defeating Zuni Pueblo Indians. Later involved wit fighting the Choctaws
-1541 Francisco Vazquez de Coronado explores Kansas and New Mexico, leading to the Tiguex War
-1542 Cabrillo explores and discovers the Californian coast and the Californian Indians. De Soto dies and is buried near the Mississippi River
-1559 Tristan de Luna explores North America
-1563 Francisco de Ibarra explores New Mexico
-1576 Sir Martin Frobisher explores Baffin Bay and the Hudson Strait
-1584 Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe (both in the service of Sir Walter Raleigh) explore the coast of North Carolina
-1585 Walter Raleigh receives the patent to explore and settle in North America. Walter Raleigh's fleet of seven vessels under Richard Grenville and Ralph Lane, with 108 men, reaches Roanoke Island, and the Virginia colony of Roanoke Island is established
-1598 Juan de Archuleta explores Colorado
-1599 Vincente Zaldivar kills 800 Acoma Pueblo
-1600s Navajo adopt sheep-farming and re-introduce the horse
-1607 English colonists establish Jamestown settlement
-1609- 13 War between Powhatan and the settlers at Jamestown. Marriage of Pocahontas to John Rolfe brings peace
-1609 Henry Hudson explores northeastern North America including the Hudson River
-1612 Jesuits begin arriving in Canada
-1614 The Mayflower arrives at Plymouth to found first colony in New England
-1617 Pocahontas dies in England
-1620 Plymouth sees the arrival of English pilgrims
-1622-1624 The Powhatan Confederacy in Virginia between colonists and Native Americans
-1637 First Indian uprising in an English colony (Virginia). The Pequot War aims to maintain hunting grounds. The first reservations are established by Puritans near New Haven, Connecticut
-1638 The Pequot War- The Pequots are defeated by the colonists led by John Underhill and John Mason allied with the Narragansetts and Mohicans
-1640- 1701 The Beaver Wars, also known as the Iroquois Wars or the French and Iroquois Wars
-1655 The Peach Tree War, the Susquehannock Nation and allied Native Americans on settlements around New Amsterdam
-1663 First translation of the Bible into Native American into the Algonquian language by John Eliot
-1675- 1676 King Philip's War, so named after Metacoment of the Wampanoag tribe, who as called Philip by the English
-1680- 1692 The Pueblo Revolt occurred in New Mexico and Arizona between the Tuscarora Native Americans and the Spanish
-1689- 1763 The French and Indian War between France and Great Britain for the lands in the new world. The Iroquois were allied to the French and the Algonquian tribes were allied with British
-1700s The Comanche established on the southern plans, with horses
-1711-1713 The Tuscarora War between the Tuscarora Native Americans and European settlers in North Carolina. The Tuscarora were defeated
-1715 The Yamasee War- The Yamasee against the white settlements in South Carolina
-1722 Iroquois surrender claims to land south of the Ohio River in addition to counties in the eastern panhandle
-1731 The Great Sun of the Natchez is captured by the French and sold into slavery
-1738 Smallpox decimates 90 percent of the Arikara people in Missouri
-1742 Birth of Joseph Brant
-1756- 1763 The Seven Year War (French and Indian War) due to disputes over land is won by Great Britain. France gives England all French territory east of the Mississippi River, except New Orleans. The Spanish give up east and west Florida to the English in return for Cuba
-1763 Treaty of Paris ends French ad Indian War (1754-1763)
-1764 Pontiac's Rebellion in the Ohio River Valley. The Ottawa Chief Pontiac (1720-1769) leads a rebellion against the British
-1769 Spanish missions established in California. Over the next 60 years, the Native population declines by some 54,000 to 18,000 due to a combination of slave labor and European diseases
-1774 December 16 the Boston Tea Party Massachusetts patriots dressed as Mohawk Indians protest against the British Tea Act by dumping crates of tea into Boston Harbor
-1775 American Revolutionary War begins
-1775 Lord Dunmore's War in southern Ohio, in which Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, sends 3,000 soldiers to defeat the 1,000 Native Indians
-1776 Chichamauga War (1776-1794) Cherokee involvement in the American Revolutionary War, continuing through late 1794
-1783 America gains independence from Britain
-1785 Northwest Indian War (1785-1795)
-1786 Tlingit people's first encounter with the white man
-1791 Little Turtle, the Miami Chief, kills 900 U.S army soldiers, the worst ever defeat for the U.S. At the hands of Native Americans
-1794 Indians lose the Battle of Fallen Timbers in Ohio
-1795 Treaty of Greenville sees Indians give up large part of southern Indiana and most of Ohio
-1800 Bureau of Indian Affairs estimates Indian population at 600,000
-1804- 1806 Lewis and Clark Expedition to the Pacific Ocean
-1809-1811 Tecumseh's War. Tecumseh battles for Indian Unity. At the Battle of Tippecanoe (1811-1813), the Prophet brother of Shawnee Chief Tecumseh, attacks Indiana Territory but is defeated by the troops of William Henry Harrison
-1811 Creek War (1813-1814) erupts in Alabama and Georgia. The Creek Indians are defeated by American forces led by Andrew Jackson
-1812 The War of 1812 begins between Britain and the U.S.
-1813 Tecumseh is killed at the Battle of Thames whilst fighting for the British
-1813 Peoria War, a conflict between the U.S. Army, settlers and the Native Americans tribes of the Potawatomi and the Kickapoo tribes in Illinois
-1817 First Seminole War (1817-1818) erupts in Florida as the Seminole defend their lands and runaway slaves
-1819 Florida is acquired from Spain
-1821 Sequoyah invents the Syllabary
-1822 Red Cloud born
-1827 Winnebago War (1827) in Wisconsin between the Winnebago people and settlers and lead miners trespassing on their lands
-1830 Indian Removal Act
-1831 Sitting Bull born
-1832 Black Hawk War in northern Illinois and southwestern Wisconsin by Sauk and Fox tribes led by Chief Black Hawk in an attempt to re-take their homeland. Department of Indian Affairs established
-1835 A minority of Cherokee leaders sign the Treaty of Echota Creek Alabama uprising (1835-1837) in Alabama and Georgia. It results in a defeat for the Creek forces and the removal of the Creek people from their native lands to the Indian territory in present day Oklahoma
-1835 Second Seminole War (1835-1842) in the Florida Everglades area. Under Chief Osceola
-1837 Osage Indian War (1837) with the Osage Indians in Missouri
-1837 Smallpox sweeps the western tribes. Only 39 of the Mandan tribe survives
-1838 The Cherokee are the last of the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Seminal, and Chickasaw) to make the enforced march on the Trial of Tears
-1846- 1863 The Navajo conflicts in New Mexico and Arizona
-1848 Gold is discovered in California
-1849 Gold Rush begins
-1851 Indian Appropriation Act: reservation system will become widespread because of it
-1855-1856 Rogue River War in Oregon. Indian tribes are attacked in an attempt to start a war that will enable unemployed miners to work. Survivors are forced into reservations
-1855 Third Seminole War (1855-1858) in the Florida Everglades. The Seminole, led by Chief Billy Bowlegs makes their last stance
-1860 Paiute War in Nevada
-1861-1865 Civil War
-1861-1900 Apache Wars in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas led by Geronimo and Cochise. Geronimo surrenders in 1886, but others carry on the fight until 1900
-1862 U.S. Congress passes the Homeland Act, opening the Great Plains to settlers
-1863- 1864 Navajo War
-1865- 1869 Building of Union Pacific Railroad brings settlers to the Great Plains
-1865- 1868 and 1879 Ute War breaks out in Utah due to Mormon settlers taking over their lands
-1866 The Five Civilized Tribes cede to the western party the Indian Territory because of some of their members' support for the confederacy during the Civil War
-1867 Medicine Lodge Treaty assigns reservations to the Arapaho, Cheyenne, Comanche, Kiowa, and Kiowa-Apache
-1868 Forts on the Bozeman Trial are abandoned by the U.S. Because of the success of Red Cloud's War
-1869 Transcontinental Railroad finished
-1871 Congress passes a law which deprives the tribes of their status as separate nations
-1872- 1873 Modoc War in northern California and Oregon led by Captain Jack. 165 Indians hold off superior U.S. Numbers until artillery fire means that the Indians have no choice but to surrender
-1874 Red River War in northern Texas against the Arapaho, Comanche, Cheyenne, and Kiowa tribes
-1874 Death of Cochise
-1875 Quanah Parker enters a reservation
-1876 Black Hills War starts after gold prospectors trespass on the Sioux lands
-1876 Battle of the Rosebud in Montana: Lakota, Sioux and Cheyenne under Crazy Horse cut off reinforcements intended to help Custer at the Battle of Little Big Horn. Custer is defeated
-1877 Nez Perce War in Oregon, Montana, and Idaho, led by Chief Joseph who eventually surrenders
-1878- 1879 Northern Cheyenne escape from Northern Territory
-1879 Carlisle School established in Pennsylvania, with aim of assimilating Indians into white society
-1881 Sitting Bull surrenders to U.S. Forces after leaving Canada, where he had been in exile after defeating General Custard
-1882 Indian Rights Association founded
-1885 Sitting Bull joins Buffalo Bill's touring Will West Show
-1887 Dawes General Allotment Act passed by Congress leads to the break-up of the large Indian Reservations and the sale of Indian lands to white settlers
-1889 Land rush into Oklahoma, formerly Indian Territory
-1890 The Wounded Knee Massacre in South Dakota. Census records state Indian population at just under half a million people
-1891 Sioux refugees surrender and return to Pine Ridge Reservation
-1893 Buffalo, which once roamed the plains in their millions, are almost extinct. Only 1,000 are left
-1900 Indian population sinks further to 237,000
-1907 Charles Curtis is the first American Indian elected to the U.S. Senate
-1909 Geronimo dies
-1918 Naive American church founded
-1924 Indian Citizenship Act
-1934 Indian Reorganization Act
-1968 American Indian Movement founded
-1969 All Indians declared citizens of U.S.
American Indian Movement (AIM)
-1969- 1971 Indians occupy Alcatraz Island
-1972 “Trail of Broken Treaties” protest
-1973 Protest at Wounded Knee
-1974 Indian Financing Act
-1975 Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act
-1978 American Indian Religious Freedom Act
-1979 Seminole Nation opens first 1,700-seat bingo hall
-1981 President Reagan cuts funding by 40 percent for Indian social programs
-1990 Indian Arts and Crafts Act
-2010 Census records indicate that 5.2 million people classify themselves as Native American or mixed-race including Native American

-Tribal Name Meanings
This book does not allow for an examination of the names of every tribe, so the following is a list of the majority of them.

-Abenaki- Those living at the Sunrise (easterners)
-Achomawi- River
-Acolapissa- Those who listen and see
-Ahtena- Ice people
-Akwesasne- Land where the partridge drums
-Alabama- I clear the thicket
-Anishinabe- Original people
-Apache- Enemy (Zuni word), OK horn fiddlers
-Apalachee- People of the other side
-Apalachicola- People of the other side
-Arapaho- Mother of tribes
-Arikara- Horns or Elk people, or corn eaters
-Assiniboin- Ones who cook using stones (Ojibwe word)
-Atakapa- Man eater
-Atikamekw- white fish
-Atsina- White clay people
-Atsugewi-Hat creek Indians
-Avoyel- people of the rocks
-Bayogoula- people of the bayou
-Bidai- brushwood (Caddo word)
-Brule- burned thighs
-Caddo- true chiefs
-Cayuga- place locusts were taken out, people at the mucky land
-Cayuse- stones or rocks (French-Canadian word)
-Chakchiuma- red crawfish people
-Chehalis- sand
-Cherokee- cave people (Choctaw word), people of different speech (Creek word)
-Chetco- close to the mouth of the stream
-Cheyenne- finger cutters, red talkers (Dakota word)
-Chickahominy- hominy people
-Chickamauga- dwelling place of the chief (Creek word)
-Chipwyan- pointed skins ( Cree word)
-Chitimacha- they have cooking vessels
-Chontal- stranger (Nahuati word)
-Choula- fox
-Chowanoc- people at the south
-Chomash- people who make the shell bead money
-Clallam- strong people
-Clatsop- dried salmon
-Cocopah- river people
-Comanche- anyone who wants to fight me all the time (Ute word), snakes
-Cowichan- basking in the sun that warms your back, or warmland
-Crow- crow, sparrow hack, bird people
-Dakota- allie
-Dakotas- related people
-Delaware- from Lord de la Warr
-Erie- log tail or cat people (Iroquois word)
-Fox- red earth people
-Git’ Lissums- people of the Lissums
-Gitksan- people of the northern Skena
-Gros Ventre- big bellies, one who cooks with a stone, he who cooks by roasting
-Hach Winik- true people
-Han- those who live along the river
-Havasupai- people of the blue green water
-Hiute- bowmen
-Honniasont- wearing something around the neck
-Hopi- peaceful ones or well-mannered people
-Houma- red
-Huchnom- mountain people
-Hunkpapa- campers at the opening of the circle
-Hupa- Trinity River
-Huron- head of a boar (referring to the hair style)
-Hwal’bay (Hualapi) people of the tall pines
-Ihanktonwan- dwellers at the end
-Ihanktonwana- little dwellers at the end
-Iowa- sleepy ones (Dakota word)
-Iroquois- real adders (snake) or we of the extended lodge
-Jatibonicu- people of the great sacred high waters
-Jatibonuco- great people of the sacred high waters
-Jicaque- ancient person (Nahuatl word)
-Jicarilla- little basket weaver (Spanish word)
-Kainai- many chiefs
-Kakwchak- porcupine people
-Kan-Hatki- white earth
-Kanienkahaka- people of the place of flight
-Kanza- people of the south wind
-Karok- upstream
-Kato- lake
-Kawchottine- people of the great hares
-Ketsei- going in wet sand
-Kickapoo- he stands around
-Kiowa- principal people
-Klallam- strong people
-Klamath- people of the lake
-Kotsoteka- buffalo eaters
-Kutcha-Kutchin- those who live on the flats
-Kwuda- people coming outs
-Lakota- friend or ally (same for Dakota and Nakota)
-Latgawa- those living in the uplands
-Lenni Lenape- genuine men
-Lillooet- wild onion
-Lipan- warriors of the mountains
-Machapunga- bad dust
-Mahican- wolf
-Makah- cape people
-Maliseet- broken talkers
-Massachuset- at the hills
-Mdewakanaton- dwellers of the spirit lake
-Menomonee/Menominee- wild rice eaters, or wild rice men
-Miami- people on the peninsula, cry of the crane, pigeon
-Michigamea- great water
-Miniconjou- planters by water
-Missouri- great muddy; people with wooden canoes
-Moapa- mosquito creek people
-Moatokni- southerners
-Modoc- southerners
-Mohave- three mountains
-Mohawk- the possessors of the flint, coward; man eater (Abenaki word)
-Mohegan- wolf
-Moneton- big water people
-Munsee- at the place where the stones are gathered together
-Nahane- people of the west
-Naticoke- people of the tidewaters
-Narragansett- people of the small point
-Natsit-Kutchin- those who live off the flats
-Navajo- cultivated field in an Arroyo (Tewa word)
-Nipmuck- freshwater fishing place
-Nisga’a- people of the nass river
-Nokoni- those who turn back
-Nooksack- mountain men
-Nootka- along the coast
-Oglala- scatters their own
-Ojibwe- to roast until puckered up
-Okelousa- black water
-Okmulgee- where water boils up
-Omaha- upstream people, or people going against the current
-Oneida- a boulder standing up, people of the standing stone
-Onondaga- people on top of the hills
-Opata- hostile people (Pima word)
-Osage- shaved heads
-Ottawa- traders
-Otto- lechers
-Pahoja- dusty ones
-Pakiutlema- people of the gap
-Pamunkey- rising upland
-Pantch-Pinunkansh- men altogether red
-Papagos- desert people, bean people
-Papinashuash- the ones who like to laugh
-Pascagoula- bread people
-Passamaquoddy- plenty of Pollock
-Paugusset- where the narrows open out
-Pawnee- horn people, men of men, look like wolves
-Penateka- honey eaters
-Pennacook- downhill
-Penobscot- it forks on the white rocks or the descending ledge place, at the stone place
-Pensacola- hair people, people of the lakes, tribes near the great lakes
-Peoria- carrying a pack on his back
-Pequot- fox people or destroyers
-Piegan- scabby robes
-Piekuakamit- the ones from the flat lake
-Piikani- poor robes
-Pilthlako- big swamp
-Pima- river people (Papago word for “I don’t know”)
-Pojoaque- drinking place
-Potawatomi- people of the place of the fire, keepers of the fire (Fire Nation, fire people)
-Powhatan- falls in a current of water
-Pshwanwapam- stony ground
-Puyallup- shadow
-Quahadi- antelope
-Quapaw- downstream people
-Quinnipiac- long water country
-Sac- people of the yellow earth, or people of the outlet
-Salish- flatheads
-Sans Arc- without bows (French words)
-Schaghticke- at the river forks
-Sekani- dwellers on the rocks
-Seminole- separatist, runaway or break away; Peninsula people
-Seneca- place of stone, people of the standing rock, great hill people
-Shawnee- south or southerners
-Shoshone- sheep eaters
-Sihasapa Sioux- black feet
-Siksika- black feet or black foot
-Sioux- snake (French version of other tribe’s name), French for “cut-throats”
-Sisitonwan- dwellers of the fish ground
-Skokomish- river people
-Taino- we the good people
-Takelma- those living along the river
-Tangipahoa- corn gatherers
-Tanima- liver eaters
-Tantawats- southern men
-Tatsanottine- people of the copper water
-Tawakoni- river bend among red hills
-Tejas- friendly
-Tenawa- downstream
-Tennuth- Ketchin- middle people
-Teton- dwellers of the prairie
-Tewa- moccasins
-Thlingchadinne- dog-flank people
-Tinde- people of the mountains
-Titonwan- dwellers of the plains
-Tonawanda- confluent stream
-Tonkawa- they all stay together, or most human of people
-Tsattine- lives among the brave
-Tsetsaut- people of the Interior (Niska word)
-Tsimshian- people of the river
-Tsuu t’ina- great number of people
-Tubatulabal- pinenut eaters (Shoshone word)
-Tuscarora- hemp-gatherers, the shirt wearing people
-Two kettle- two boilings
-Unalachtgo- tidewater people
-Ute- dark skinned
-Vunta-Ketchin- those who live among the lakes
-Wahpekute- shooters among the leaves
-Wahpetonwan- dwellers among the leaves
-Wailaki- north language (Wintun word)
-Wakokai- blue heron breeding place
-Walapai- pine tree people
-Wallawalla- little river
-Wampanoag- eastern people
-Wappo- brave
-Waptailmin- people of the narrow river
-Wasco- cup, those who have the cup
-Wichita- Big Harbor (Choctaw word), raccoon eyes
-Winnebago- filthy water people
-Wiwohka- roaring water
-Wyandot- people of the Peninsula; Islanders
-Yakima- runaway, pregnant people, people of the narrows
-Yamparika- root eaters or yap eaters
-Yavapai- people of the sun, crooked mouth people
-Yoncalla- those living at Yankeld
-Yuchi- situated yonder
-Yuki- stranger (Wintum word)
-Yurok- downstream (Karok word)

With thanks for permission from www.firstnations.com

-Allotment Act- Also known as the Dawes Act, after Senator Henry Dawes, Passed in 1887, the act gave the President of the United States the right to audit all the lands that belonged to the Native American people, and then, when necessary, divide that land into smaller pieces for individual tribes.

-Assimilation- a policy that was actively encouraged by white settlers in order to encourage Native Americas to be absorbed into the “mainstream” culture. The exchange of one culture for another, sent to European schools, children were not allowed to use their native language and were encouraged to reject their traditional religious practices in favor of Christian ones was in the height late 1800s and the early 1900s.

-Big Elk “What has passed and cannot be prevented should not be grieved for.” 1770-1846. The last pureblooded chief of the Omaha people.

-Abiaka (? 1760-1860?) a medicine man, spiritual leader and also chief of the Muskogee Seminole tribe, who lived in the southeastern United States.

-American Horse (1840-1908) An Oglala Sioux chief and son of Sitting Bull, Native name was Wasicun Thasunke, meaning “he who has the horse of a white man.” Also had the nickname “Spider”.

-Amos Bad Heart Bull (1868-1913) also known as Eagle Bonnet, belonged to the Oglala Lakota branch of the Sioux Nation.

-Anasazi- meaning “the ancient ones” were among the first dwellers in the vast land that became the United States.

-Appaloosa- the name the white man gave to the beautiful war ponies with distinctive spotted coats, that belonged to the Nez Perce peoples.

-Big Spotted Horse (1836-?) left-handed

-Billy Bowlegs (1810?-1859) also known as the “alligator chief” native name was Holata Micco, meaning “chief”.

-Black Elk “And I say the sacred hoop of my people was one of the many hoops that made one circle, wide as daylight and as starlight, and in the center grew one mighty flowering tree to shelter all the children of one mother and one father.” (1863-1950)

-Black Hawk (Makataimeshekiakiak) “Courage is not afraid to weep, and she is not afraid to pray, even when she is not sure who she is praying to.” (1767-1838) of tradition became a medicine man like his father and trained in combat.

-Black Kettle- “Although wrongs have been done to me, I live in hopes. I have not got two hearts… Now we are together again to make peace. My shame is as big as the earth, although I will do what my friends have advised me to do. I once thought that I was the only man that preserved to be the friend of the white man, but since they have came and cleaned out our lodges, horses and everything else, it is hard for me to believe the white man anymore.” (1803?-1869) born as Moketavato in the hills of South Dakota, a Cheyenne leader who, in 1854, was made chief of the council that formed the central government of the tribe.

-Blue Jacket (1740-1810) also known to his own tribe as Weyapiersenwah, Blue Jacket was a war chief of the Shawnee people.

-Brant, Joseph- “The Mohawks have on all occasions shown their zeal and loyalty to the Great King; yet they have been very badly treated by his people.” (1747-1807) was the name given to him by the Europeans to the Mohawk leader Theyebdabegea (meaning, “two sticks tied together for strength”)

-Buffalo Bill- “Every Indian outbreak that I have ever known has resulted from broken promises and broken treaties by the Government.” (1846-1917) William Frederick Cody, the nickname became synonymous with the idea of the Wild West which was actually won by him in a shooting match with another Bill.

-Buffalo, White- the rare instance of an Albino buffalo was seen as a favorable sign from the gods, and the animal was held in great reverence. A magical animal that was accorded to power of shape-shifting, and could even apparently transform itself into a beautiful woman, the sacred status of this rare natural phenomenon meant that the white buffalo became the subject of many myths and stories. The hide of the animal, once it had died a natural death, was made as an offering to the gods.

-Bureau of Indian affairs- organization officially started as part of the U.S. Department of the Interior in 1849, but was first founded in 1824 when it was called the office of Indian affairs. Given its current name in 1947.

-Bury the hatchet- Native American in origin. Where chiefs of the tribes met to discuss a problem, as soon as the pact was sealed, symbolically, by the literal burying of the hatchet, which was a weapon of war.

-Cacique- a word with Arawak origins (Kasseque), a cacique is another name for a chief or a head of a tribe and applies in the main to South American tribes as well as those in the Caribbean.

-Captain Jack (1837?-1873) also known as Kintpuash or Keentpoos, leader of the Modac of California.

-Carson, Kit (1809-1868) born in Kentucky and Christened Christopher Houston Carson, one of 15 children.

-Catlin, George- “I have, for many years past, contemplated the noble faces of red men who are now spread over these trackless forests and boundless prairies, melting away at the approach of civilization.” (1796-1872) the most famous painter of the Native American as well as writings.

-Chief- the over all leader of a tribe.

-Chief John Big Tree (1877-1967) a member of the Seneca was an actor who appeared in films between 1917 and 1949.

-Chief Joseph- “If the white man wants to live in peace with the Indian, he can live in peace… Treat all men alike. Give them all the same law. Give them all an even chance to live and grow. All men were made by the same Great Spirit Chief, they are all brothers. The earth is the Mother of all people, and all people should have equal rights upon it.” (1840-1904) native name was Hin may too yah lat kekt, meaning “thunder rolling down the mountain”. Leader of the Wallowa band of the Nez Perce tribe.

-Chief Seattle- “Let him (the white man) be just and kindly with my people, for the dead are not altogether powerless.” (attributed to Seattle) (1780?-1866) a chief of the Duwamish tribe.

-Choctaw Code Talkers- used during the first world war to confuse the Germans.

-Cochise- “Nobody wants peace more than I do. Why shut me up on a reservation? We will make people; we will keep it faithfully. But let us go around free as Americans do. Let us go wherever we please.” (1805-1874) a chief of the Chiricahua Apache, real name is Cheis, meaning “strong like the oak” or “hardwood”

-Comanche Code- used during the second war to confuse the Germans

Concomly- a Chinook chief who extended a friendly welcome to the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1805.

-Cornplanter- “It is my wish and the wishes of my people to live peacefully and quietly with you.” (1770s-1836) a Seneca chief.

-Cornstalk- (1720-1777) a Shawnee leader, native name was Hokoleskwa, meaning “stalk of corn”.

-Coureur de Bois- French phrase meaning “running of the woods.” Implied to the fur traders.

-Crazy Horse- “I was hostile to the white man… We preferred hunting to a life of idleness on our reservations. At times we did not get enough to ear and we were not allowed to hunt. All we wanted was peace and to be let alone. Soldiers came… in the winter… and destroyed our villages. Then Long Hair (Custer) came… They said we massacred him, but he would have done the same to us. Our first impulse was to escape… but we were so hemmed in we had to fight. After that I lived in peace, but the government would not let me alone. I was not allowed to remain quiet. I was tired of fighting… They tried to confine me… and a soldier ran his bayonet into me. I have spoken.” (1840?-1877) Lakota Sioux Warrior, Tashuncauitko, meaning “his horse is crazy/spirited”

-Davy Crocket (1786-1836) a pioneer, trapper and soldier, also a U.S. Congressman who was vehemently opposed to the Indian Removal Act as well as to many other policies of President Andrew Jackson.

-Crowfoot- “What is life? It is the flash of a firefly in the night. It is the breath of a buffalo in the wintertime. It is the little shadow which runs across the grass and loses itself in the sunset.” (1825?-1890) also known as Isapo Muxika, chief of the Siksika tribe of the Blackfoot Nation.

-Custer’s last stand- General Armstrong Custer, (1839-1876) who he many others fought and lost against many of the Native tribes.

-De Soto, Hernando (1496-1542) Spanish explorer and the first person to lead a significant European expedition into the heart of America. First arriving in the “New World” in 1514.

-Dohosan (1805-1866) also known as “Little Bluff” a chief of the Kiowa tribe.

-First Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851) (not to be confused with the treaty of Fort Laramie, 1868) a bill to help settle white man and Natives disputes during the gold rush in California (1848-1855)

-Gall (1840?-1894) belonged to the Hunkpapa Lakota branch of the Sioux who became a famous leader during the Battle of Little Big Horn.

-George Washington’s Civilization Program- similar to Allotment Act or The Dawes Act, but on a much larger scale to “civilize” the natives over to the white man culture and regulate them further.

-Geronimo- “I was born on the prairies where the wind blew free and there was nothing to break the light of the sun. I was born where there were no enclosures.” (1829-1909) a leader of the Apache tribe who’s name means “one who yawns”.

-Guyasuta (1725-1794?) a key chief of the Seneca Nation was a great diplomat as well as warrior.

-Handsome Lake (1735-1815) a member of the Seneca people.

-He Dog (1840-1936) born into the Oglala Dakota division of the Sioux. Started his own band of people, named the Soreback, in the 1860s.

-Hole in the Day (1825-1868) a chief of the Ojibwe tribe whose name Bug-o-nag-he-zhisk meaning “rift in the clouds”.

-The Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990- a law passed in order to protect Native American arts and crafts within the U.S., and, consequently, in the rest of the world.

-Indian Citizenship Act 1924- the Snyder Act, a bill, in 1924, introduced by Homer P. Snyder-signed by President Calvin Coolidge- granted full United States Citizenship to Native American people. 125,000 People, the remaining 175,000 were granted in other ways.

-Indian Peace Commission- established by Congress in 1867, was intended to bring about peace with the Plains Indians who were fighting with the United States.

-Indian Removal Act- became law in 1830, who Jackson suggested it. An act granting the U.S. Government to simply remove Natives from their lands they had occupied for generations so that white settlers could move in. It was suppose to be “voluntary”, but rations and other methods forced the movement.

-Indian Reorganization Act- also known as the Indian New Deal or the Howard-Wheeler Act which came into force in 1934, this act sought to rectify the problems caused by the Allotment Act giving the tribes the authority and right to govern themselves via their own governmental organizations, also for them to form businesses and corporations in their own right.

-Indian Territory- land set aside by the U.S. Government in 1829 for their new homeland.

-James Bigheart (1839-1908) a key chief of the Osage nation, a veteran of the Civil War and discharged in 1865 as a First Lieutenant.

-Kancamagus- the last chief of the Pennecook tribe who died in battle against the white man in 1675.

-Kateri (1656-1680) a woman whose family died of smallpox but she managed to survive who taught the white man her skills.

-Keokuk (1770?-184) a chief of the Sauk whose name means “watchful fox” he was extraordinarily cooperation with the white settlers, which would cause conflicts with his own people, most notably Black Hawk.

-Kicking Bear- “My brothers, I bring to you the promise of a day in which there will be no white man to lay his hand on the bridle of the Indians horse. When the red men of the prairie will rule the world and not be turned from the hunting grounds by any men. I bring you word from your fathers the ghosts, that they are now marching to join you, led by the Messiah who came once to live on earth with the white men, but was cast out and killed by them. I have seen the wonders of the spirit-land, and have talked with the ghosts. I traveled far and am sent back with a message to tell you to make ready for the coming of the Messiah and return of the ghosts in the spring.” (1846-1904) Matho Wanahtake, born into the Oglala Lakota tribe and later became a band chief of the Miniconjou Lakota Sioux, fought in Battle of Little Big Horn, drew a painting 20 years later of that battle.

-King Philip (1639-1676) also known as Metacomet nicknamed after Philip of Macedon, his brother nicknamed Alexander from Alexander the great.

-Kitsap (?-1860) along with Chief Seattle, he was one of the prominent leaders of the Suquamish tribe.

-La Flesche, Susette- “The people of the United States based their laws on those of England. It is not many generations ago, that in England, the law exacted life for the theft of a loaf of bread. It is nothing to the law. A human being to sustain life steals a loaf of bread or lump of coal. Immediately the power of the law is invoked to protect the rights of property but it did not protect the right of the human being to live.” (1854-1903) she is known as Insta Theamba or “bright eyes”

-Land lesion- the lending of land was generally organized by a treaty, entailing that natives gave up their ancestral lands in return for the protection and help of the white settlers. Time and again the promises were rarely kept.

-Lappawinze- one of the Delaware chiefs who, in 1737, was one of the key signatories to the “walking purchase” treaty in Philadelphia.

-Leatherlips (1732-1810) of the Huron (Wyandot) people, Shateiaronhi, meaning “two clouds of equal size”

-Little Crow (1810?-1863) known as Taoyateduta meaning “little crow” by his own people Mdewakanaton Dakota division of the Sioux tribe came about because of an error in the translation of his father’s name.

-Little Turtle (1747?-1812) Miami tribe, Mishikinakwa, a skilled warrior, later to become a war chief.

-Little Wolf- “… I have seen that in any great undertaking it is not enough for a man to depend simply upon himself.” (1820?-1904) a northern Cheyenne chief was also known as “Little Coyote” or Ohcumgache.

-Logan, John (1723-1780) born into Iroquois Confederacy and a member of the Cayuga

-Lone Wolf (1820-1879) generally known as “Long Wolf the Elder” native name was Guipago. Considered the last great chief of the Kiowa during this people’s transition from freedom to a life on the reservations.

-Luther Standing Bear- “There is a road in the hears of all of us, hidden and seldom traveled, which leads to an known, secret place. The old people came literally to live the soil, and they sat or reclined on the ground with a feeling of being close to a mothering power. Their tipis were built upon the earth and their altars were made of earth. The soul was soothing, strengthening, cleansing, and healing. That is why the old Indian still sits upon the earth instead of propping himself up and way from its life-giving forces. For him, to sit or lie upon the ground is to be able to think more deeply and to feel more keenly. He can see more clearly into the mysteries of life and come close to kinship to other lives about him.” (1868-1939) also known as Ota Kte, of the Oglala Sioux meaning “plenty kill” was an actor and author.

-Manuelito (?-1893) Bullet, was a Navajo chief who tried to stop the obligatory relocation of his people by the U.S. Government

-Maria Tall Chief (1925) the first native prima ballerina.

-Massasoit (1581?-1661) means “Great Sachem”, a Sachem was the supreme chief and overall ruler of a territory that was inhabited by a number of allied tribes. Birth name, Ousamequin.

-Medicine Lodge treaty- three treaties signed just one week in the fall of 1867. To bring peace with the Indians by relocating them.

-Metis- French meaning of mixed race, Native and something else, typically European.

-Montezuma, D. Carlos (1866-1923) also called Wasaja, meaning “beckoning” an Apache/Yavapi who did a great deal to help the cause of the natives.

-Montour, Catharine (1724?-1804) also known as Queen Catharine, Montour, she was an important member of the Iroquois people.

-Morning Star- “I would rather die in freedom on my way back home than starve to death here.” (1810?-1883) a chief of the northern Cheyenne, also known by his Lakota Sioux name, the less glamorous sounding Dull Knife.

-Names for the white man- generic term “pale face” Arapaho called them “yellow hide” or “white skin” Iroquois used “white hide” Wyandot “morning light people” Miami “hairy chest” Kiowa “hairy mouths”

-Neolin- mid 18th century, a spiritual leader of the Delaware Indians, also known as the Delaware Prophet. “The Enlightened One”

-Ohiyesa (1158-1939) Charles Eastman. Writing from his unique perspectives as a Native educated in the European style.

-Old lady grieves the enemy- a Pawnee woman, during the 19th century became a heroine when her village was attacked by bands of Sioux and Ponca.

-Osceola- “They could not capture me except under a white flag. They cannot hold me except with a chain.” (1803?-1838) legendary Seminole Chief, “Black Drink Singer”

-Otherday, John (1801-1871) born into the Wahpeton Sioux at Swan Lake, gave aide and friendship to the white man.

-Ouray (1820-1880) a Chief of the Ute, who were being forced into signing away the rights to their land in Colorado during the time of the Gold Rush in the 1870s.

-Pacanne (1737?-1816) chief of the Miami people controlled an important stretch of land, a “portal” between Maumee and Wabash rivers in Ohio.

-Parker, General Eli Samuel (1826-1895) grandson of the famous Chief Red Jacket. Mixed blood, Native name, Donehogawa.

-Parker, Quanah- “I do not think of Americans, only of Comanches… And the children of Comanches… And the children that will come from those children. The Americans are here. They will stay. We cannot drive them out. They will grow strong while we will not. We must learn from them so that our children will not hunger… so they will be warm in winter… so they will be strong as the Americans are strong.” (1845/1852?-1911) a great Comanche chief who in later years adapted surprisingly will to the way of life on the reservation.

-Petalesharo (1797-1832) one of the three chiefs bearing this name, but this one was particularly noted for putting an end to the practice of sacrificing young girls to the morning star.

-Pine Tree Chief- within the peoples of the Iroquois Confederacy, A leader who is chosen for his particular skills or qualities. It is not a hereditary title. Red Jacket, also known as Segoyewatha (“he who keeps them awake”), had astounding skills oratory which contributed to him being this.

-Pithouse- a dwelling place or religious building that is constructed by digging a hold, lining it with timber, and making a roof of saplings, grasses, turf and soil.

-Pocahontas (1595-1617) the daughter of the Chief of the Great Algonquin Nation, Powhatan.

-Policy of Termination- introduced in the 1950s, a move to end the “special relationship” between the natives and the Federal Government. It was intended to make it easier for the Indians to be absorbed more smoothly into “American” society and culture.

-Pontiac- “They came with a Bible and their religion, stole our land, crushed our spirit… and now tell us we should be thankful to the ‘Lord’ for being saved.” (1720?-1769) In 1755 he was an Ottawan leader and time shows that he was a significant leader, too.

-Popee (c. 1630-1690) a renowned medicine man belonging to the Tewa Pueblo people living in San Juan in Northern Mexico. He instigated and led a successful rebellion against the Spanish invaders in 1680.

-The Potlatch Ban- described as an attempt to “unify” Canada, but which seems really to have been another way of undermining Native American practices, John A. Macdonald, the last Prime Minister of Canada (1878-1891) decided to restrict any ceremonies or practices which he believed were unnecessary or inappropriate, and to replace them instead with “healthier” European/Christian practices. The Indian Act of 1880 was duly amended to ban the Potlatch.

-Poundmaker- a chief of the Cree tribe, joined forces with another Chief, Big Bear, in order to protect the rights of their people during the Canadian Pacific Railroad across their territory.

-Powwow- from a Narragansett/Algongquian word meaning “magician” or “spiritual leader”, has later became to be known as a large conference or meeting, replete with ceremonial magic.

-Pratt, Richard Henry- “Kill the Indian, and save man.” (1840-1924) the quote comes from his unrelenting efforts to “civilizing” the Native population, assimilating them into the culture values, beliefs, and ideals of the Europeans.

-Princess Angeline (1820?-1896) the first daughter of Chief Seattle, real name Kikisoblu.

-Pushmataha- “I can say and tell all the truths that no Choctaw ever drew his bow against the United States… my nation has given of their country until it is very small, we are in trouble.” (1764?-1824), a great leader of the Choctaw, a great warrior and skilled diplomat.

-Queen Alliquippa (1670?-1754) leader of the Seneca in the early port of the 18th century.

-Rain-in-the-face- “Revenge!” cried Rain-in-the-face, “Revenge upon all the race of the white chief with yellow hair! And the mountains dark and high from their crags re-echoed the cry of his anger and despair.” –“The Revenge of Rain-in-the-face”, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1878 (1835-1905) born into the Hunkpapa band of the Lakota Nation in Dakota territory near the Cheyenne River, name is derived from two possibilities, face splattered by blood when he was younger during a fight with a young brave during a rainstorm, also killed the army veteran John Honsinger during the battle of Honsinger Bluff, arrested for his death by Captain Thomas Custer, ordered by his brother Armstrong, escaped and took part in Battle of Little Big Horn.

-Red Cloud “When we first made treaties with the Government, this was our position: our old life and our old customs were about to end; the game upon which we lived was disappearing; the whites were closing around us, and nothing remained for us but to adopt their ways and have the same rights with them if we wished to save ourselves.” (1822-1909) Mahpiya Luta, Chief of the Oglala Sioux, not only led a successful campaign against the United States Army, but was instrumented in introducing his people to life on the reservations. Part-warrior, part-politician and also a great statesman.

-Red Jacket- “The white people, Brother, had now found our country. Tidings were carried back, and more came amongst us. Yet we did not gear them we took them to be friends. They called us brothers. We believed them, and gave them a larger seat. At length their numbers had greatly increased. They wanted more land; they wanted our country, our eyes were opened, and our minds became uneasy. Wars took place. Indians were hired to fight against Indians, and many of our people were destroyed. They also brought liquor among us. It was strong and powerful, and has slain thousands.” (1750?-1830) belonged to the Seneca people and was a chief of the Wolf clan.

-Red Power Movement- happened at Alcatraz years after closing where 89 Natives in November, 1969. Calling themselves, “Indians of all tribes”, claiming Alcatraz in accordance with a clause in an 1869 treaty between the Sioux and the U.S. Government. This treaty gave the Sioux the rights over any abandoned Federal properties situated in Indian lands. This movement was an attempt to obtain funds for the natives.

-Riddle, Toby (1848-1920) A woman of the Modoc people, real name was Winema. First named at birth, Nanookdoowah, “strange child”, since her hair had a reddish tint. A tomboy.

-Rolfe, Thomas- the son of Pocahontas and John Rolfe.

-Roman Nose- “Are not women and children more timid than men? The Cheyenne warriors are not afraid, but have you never heard of Sand Greek? Your soldiers look just like the soldiers that butchered women and children there…” (1835?-1868) called Woqini by his Northern Cheyenne people, this warrior took the name of “Nook nose” which was interpreted by the white man as “Roman nose”.

-Sacajawea (1788-1812) a Shoshone meaning “bird woman” such historical and cultural importance that she was even commemorated by the U.S. mint in the year 2000, where she was depicted on the dollar coin.

-Samoset- a Sagamore, or Chief, of the Pemoquid/Abenaki people who learned English from some fishermen, the first native to greet the Pilgrim Fathers in 1620 when they landed on Cape Cod.

-Sassacus- the last Sachem, or chief, of the Pequot, who were virtually obliterated in the Pequot War of 1636.

-Satanta- “A long time ago this land belonged to our fathers, but when I go up to the river I see camps of soldiers on its banks. These soldiers cut down my timber, they kill my buffalo and when I see that, my heart feels like bursting.” (1820?-1878) Kiowa warrior Chief was known to his people by “white bear person”. Also involved in negotiating various treaties with the American Government.

-Sayenqueraghta (1707?-1786) a member of the Seneca who were a part of the all-powerful Iroquois Confederacy, was the sun of a chief The Turtle Clan of the Senca. Became a war chief in 1751. Often called “old smoke”.

-Sequoyah (c. 1760-1843) one of the most significant developments for the Natives in general, and for the Cherokee nation in particular, was the construction of an alphabet so that the Cherokee language, previously only a spoken language, could be written down.

-Short Bull (1845?-1923) a member of the Brule Lakota tribe, warrior and medicine man, fought in the Battle of Little Bighorn. Leader of the Ghost Dance Movement/

-Sitting Bull- “I do not wish to be shot up in a corral. All agency Indians I have seen are worthless. They are neither wolf nor dog.” (1831?-1890) one of the greatest native chiefs, and the last to surrender to the white man. Also known as Slon-He, meaning “slow” as a kid nicknamed “Jumping Badger.”

-Slocum, John (1838-1897) a member of the Squaxon tribe of the Pacific Northwest, also known as Squ-Sacht-un, introduced a new religion to the natives.

-Sock Alexis, Louis (1871-1913) the first Native American Major League baseball player who did not conceal his background.

-Spotted Elk (1826-1890) chief of the Miniconjou band of the Lakota Sioux, also known as Hehaka Gleska, and as “Big Foot”, given to him as a derogatory name from an American soldier. Although a skilled warrior, but was renowned for his reputation as a peacemaker and was called upon regularly to settle disagreements and quarrels with the Teton bands of the Miniconjou.

-Spotted Tail- “This war did not spring up on our land, this war was brought upon us by the children of the Great Father who came to take our land without a price, and who, in our land, do a great many evil things… This war has come from robbery- from the stealing of our land.” (1823-1881) born in South Dakota and named Sinte Gleska (“Jumping Buffalo”) this Brule Lakota was born into a time of great change for his people and the native population.

-Squaw Man- if a white man married a Native American woman, this was the name that he was given. A derogatory one, many were wealthy and successful.

-Standing Bear- “We lived on our land as long as we can remember. The land was owned by our tribe as far back as memory of man goes.” (c. 1834-1908) born into the Ponca tribe, most famed because of his successful argument in court that a native was actually a person within the eyes of the law. Happened in 1879.

-Tadodaho- a chief of the Onondaga nation whose name became synonymous with the concept of, and word for “chief”. Date and death unknown, lived during the 11th century.

-Tamanend (1628?-1698) also known as Tammany, and also as “The Affordable One”, chief of the Lenni Lenape clan. A peace-loving, friendly person, ensured friendly relations between the existing natives and the early English settlers.

-Tanaya (?-1853) chief of the Semite Valley Indians, known as Awahnichi (Native name for Yosemite Valley)

-Tarhe (1742-1818) belonged to the Wyandot tribe. Nickname was “the crane”, which is supposedly due to his tall and slim shape.

-Tecumseh- “… the only way to stop this evil, is for al the red men to unite in claiming a common and equal right in the land as it was at first and should be now- for it never was divided, but belongs to all… sell a country! Why not sell the air, the clouds and the great sea, as well as the earth? did not “The Great Spirit” make them all for the use of his children?” –Tecumseh to William Henry Harrison, 1810, one of the greatest leaders of the Shawnee nation, also known as “shooting star” or “ panther crossing”, was born in or around 1768.

-Tenkswatawa (c. 1775-c. 1836) Lalawethika was the original name of the Shawnee prophet who was the brother of the great leader Tecumseh. Has a vision to reject the ways of the Europeans and reclaim the native way of life and spirituality.

-Thorpe, Jim (1888-1953) born James Francis, would become one of the most famous natives, with a reputation for being one of the greatest athletes who ever lived.

-Tisquantum- is generally referred to him by his nickname, Squanto. Historical records list his birth as 1580, but possibly not accurate, died in 1622.

-Tomochichi (1644-1739) important leader of the Creek tribe, living in a town that stood in the place now known as Savannah, Georgia. Established his own band after being exiled for unknown reasons.

-Touch the clouds (1838?-1905) born Mahpiya Iyapato into the Miniconjou Sioux tribe. An awe-inspiring figure to behold, standing at 6 feet tall.

-Trail of Tears- believed to have been used by a Choctaw chief, Nitikechi, to describe the efforts of the Indian Removal Act. The Cherokee had a similar term “The Place Where They Cried.”

-Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) also known as the Sioux treaty, this agreement was designed to make peace between the United States and a group of Native tribes including the Lakota (Encompassing the Oglala, Minicoujou and Brule), the Arapacho, and the Yanktonai Dakota.

-Truckee (?-1860) known as a great spiritual leader and prophet, birth is unknown.

-Tuskaloosa- over 470 years after his death in 1540, the great chief whose name means “Black Warrior”

-Uncas (c. 1588-c. 1683) a subchief under Sassacus, disagreed with his policy split from the Pequot and started his own tribe, the Mohegan.

-Ward, Nancy (1738-1823) took up a rifle of her husband, Kingfisher, and led her side to victory during the Battle of Taliwa (fought against the Greek in 1755). Reputed to have introduced cattle to the Cherokee people. also known as “Pretty Woman” or “Beloved Father” and campaigned to improve the lot of her people.

-White Cloud (c. 1794-c. 1841) a shaman of the Winnebago who had a part to play in the Black Hawk War of 1832. Also called the Winnebago Prophet who preached against the white man and inspired not just his own people but also the Kickapoo and the Potawatomi to the cause.

-Winnemucca, Sarah (1844?-1891) also called Tocmentony, was a Paiute, heavily involved in rights for natives and also a politician and educator.

-Wodziwob- Hawthorne Wodziwob was a Paiute healer and holy man who, in 1868, had a vision.

-Wovoka (1856?-1932) this northern Paiute holy man was also known as Jack Wilson. He was the major figure in the Ghost Dance Movement, which would end in the massacre of an estimated 300 natives of the Sioux tribe at Wounded Knee.

-Young man afraid of his horses (1836-1900) the name of this chief of the Oglala Sioux loses some nuances in its translation, and bears explanation. Also known as Thasunke Khokiphapi, the meaning “they fear his horse” meaning that even the sight of his horse in battle was frightening for his enemies.

-Zitkala-Sa- “A wee child toddling in a wonder world, I prefer to their dogma my excursions into the natural gardens where the voice of the Great Spirit is heard in the twittering of birds, the rippling of mighty waters, and the sweet breathing of flowers. If this is Paganism, then at present, at least, I am a Pagan.” (1876-1938) in the language of her tribe, the Dakota, meaning “Red Bird” lived in the time during the assimilation into the new, domineering European one.

I would like to mention here that this is but a small portion of the research that I found interesting, as most of my source links, feel free to check out the book for the full effects of what the book really does have in store.